On Sharples et al. (2009)

The continuous improvement in technology made by scientists has significantly affected the way people perceive and learn the world. Mobile learning, namely m-learning, is one of the innovative products of the dramatic changing technology which seem to have been permeated all walks of life in various fields. For instance, you can see people, who are reading their electronic books on portable electronic devices such as iPad, smart phones, and tablets in a metro station or a cafe.

Mobile learning, by definition, refers to the way to learn without being confined to a fixed location. That is, learning that take place in any possible location with the help of mobile devices, including smart phones, MP3 players and PDAs (i.e. personal digital assistant) or laptop computers. The earlier definition of mobile learning emphasized the use of mobile technology, which enabled people to “e-learn” through mobile computational devices or any other kind of handheld device (Sharples et al., 2009). Thanks to the development of telecommunication and computing technology, wireless internet connection and improved mobile devices further extend the territory of mobile learning. Therefore, the definition of mobile learning should be widened to include any learning activities that not occur in a pre-determined and fixed location, or learning in which the learners make use of mobile technology (O’Malley, C. et al., 2003).

 

Compared with traditional location-fixed learning, technology-assisted learning is a timely pedagogy, whose practicability still needs to be identified and tested in the eyes of many researchers, teachers, educators and parents. According to Shaples et al. (2009), mobile learning as pedagogy, provides greater mobility in diverse aspects: Mobility in physical space in which people can learn without being physically constrained in a fixed location; mobility of technology yields a series of portable handheld devices and resources for people to carry around in which they can learn without time-constraint; these mobile devices enable people to perform learning with various social groups in which one can instantly asks for help on learning problem from his colleague, classmates or even teachers; the most distinct affordance of mobile learning is that “learning dispersed over time”, in other words, mobile learning helps people to accumulate knowledge and connect their prior knowledge with their present knowledge in order to reinforce their learning experiences. From the perspective of fostering language skills, m-learning pedagogy allows students to use their mobile devices, such as a internet-connectable application, iPhone, iPad or an Android phone, to share their problems or experience instantly and vividly, which to a certain degree, motivate them to learn under a pressure-free environment in which useful instructions and leaning take place. By using a wide variety of educational applications in smart-phones carefully selected will help develop students’ language skills accordingly.

However, with the help of continuously updated information from portable devices, peoples’ attention thus keeps shifting from one topic or theme to another in which few learning may take place if learners’ attention is not paid constantly. Moreover, mobile learning emphasizes the integration of technology into teaching and learning, which request comprehensive learning skills and computing knowledge from both teachers and learners otherwise not necessary in traditional classroom teaching/learning. In addition, mobile learning heavily depends on mobile technology (i.e. portable handheld devices) and wireless internet connection, which might requires users to pay a relatively expensive bill. According to Shield and Kukulska-Hulme (2008), the m-learning teaching pedagogy provides one-way teacher-to-learner communication in which the teacher uses the mobile devices to deliver the teaching content rather than motivating learners to communicate with each other or with their teachers. And this lack of authentic communication may later discourage learners to use the language, especially in speaking.

 

As the accessibility to wireless networks expands and ownership of devices increases, using mobile devices to support language learning becomes commonplace in educational setting (Shield et al., 2008). In Sharpless et al. (2009), three exemplars of mobile learning were mentioned and showed how children can be motivated and learn outside traditional settings. AMULETS is one of the three exemplars, in which 55 elementary students performed remote and co-located activities with smart-phones, PDAs, GPS devices and stationery computers during two lesson about the forest and the history of the city square, respectively. The educational scenarios was comprised of different game-like stages and at the end of the learning sessions, all these activities were reconstructed in the classroom using several visualization tools such as digital maps. In the first trial about learning “the forest”, students were either asked to identify different types of trees and measuring the height and age of tress or to record still images and video clips using the smart-phones elaborating how they tackle problem they encountered during their trip to the physical environment. The co-created content were encoded with metadata, including GPS coordinates, time stamp and the phone ID which enriched the contextual information for later use in the classroom. Then in the second trial, students had to work in the museum and in the square in separate groups to solve challenging problems, with the support of various animated characters and video clips providing contextual information for the challenges. The result implied that learners became positive and motivated in using mobile and ubiquitous technologies in everyday learning activities and a playful atmosphere.

       From the AMULETS, we can see that the biggest strength of m-learning pedagogy is that it significantly fosters students’ ability to learn independently with the help of various handheld devices in an interactive and fun way. Learning is no longer confined to the traditional learning setting; students are encouraged to learn at any time and at any place. However, mobile devices can be distracted sometimes. Students’ attention may shift from one topic to another quickly with the handheld devices, in which few learning might take place. As a result, teachers’ classroom control and parents’ effective monitor become important to facilitate students to use these mobile devices for educational purposes. In addition, the high charges for internet-connection service and mobile devices for schools and students may also be another weakness which impedes the implementation of mobile learning at present.

Commentary: You’re Not Studying, You’re Just…

This article entitled “You’re Not Studying, You’re Just…” is written by Ravi Purushotma, a postgraduate student from the Comparative Media Studies program at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) at the time. To be honest, it is the most interesting and enlightening article among the required reading articles I have read for the new literacies course so far. What mentioned in this article is actually strongly fighting back against the long held belief that entertainment-focused media are designed solely to be entertaining. The author of this article examines how content originally designed for entertaining purposes can be modified to provide natural and context rich language learning environments, without sacrificing its entertaining value. And I think it is the best way for educators and teachers to make the teaching materials and learning tools appear to be attractive to learners. I always believe that most of the students do not take learning as a joyful process, instead, most of them regard it as something boring and meaningless, but in order to make a decent life in the future, most of them just force themselves to learn. Hence, it would become a huge impetus to motivate students to learn if they know that learning is actually can be done by using various entertaining media.

The Sims is a strategic, life simulation video game series developed by Maxis and later. It is one of the most successful video games series of all time. In this game, the player is asked to control the daily routines of a virtual family by finishing the tasks. The player of the game will receive tasks in the language they chose to set up the game.

 

To begin with, the author provides a vivid example of his learning Germany with the help of an online video game named The Sims. In fact, the author used to be an “F” grader back in his high school and he blamed his poor Germany for the frustrating and dull German homework. In the past, the game data were exclusive to the designers which prevented players to modify the original game. However, later the game data were separated from the game itself and so various customization tools were made catering to the needs of different players. One freely available customization tool the author used provided users with direct access to modify the language data used in the game. Therefore, the author placed this tool in his computer and changed the language setting of the game into Germany, which gradually aroused the author’s interests in learning Germany  and so the more he played the Sims in Germany version, the more proficient the author became in Germany.

 

Besides game customization tools like the one used by the author in the Sims, various game innovations for building pedagogical solutions are available for teachers and educators to draw on. According to Purushotma, the most successful innovation in game designs is the development of modern massively multiplayer online games – MMOGs which is capable of supporting large number of players at the same time. There are several types of MMOGs including the role-playing games which allow players to play a role in the game doing all kinds of tasks or activities; bulletin board role-playing games which primarily consist of text and description as well as a few images; first-person shooter game which usually provide extensive or sometimes team-based battle; real-time strategy game which enable players to play as a general, emperor or other type of leading character in the game to make achievements or win the battle; simulations games which have been designed to accurately simulate certain aspects of the real world like simulations games for sports or racing. In the above-mentioned MMOGs, players can have real-time interaction and conversations with other players from all over the world. However, the educational functions of MMOGs are still need to be defined.

 

In addition to multiplayer interaction via the Internet, speech recognition is another kind of innovation which is deemed as an impetus to bring CALL into practice. Like the MMOGs, successful examples of speech recognition remain limited and one of the better examples of speech recognition technology in their Learn-to-Speak product line and freely available is the VirtualTalk Web site. It is a program in which learners are allowed to attend a fake conversation by listing themselves in the possible responses to choose from whenever they have the opportunity to attend in the conversation. Then the program will tries to connect the learner’s response to the closest of the available responses and provide corrective feedback.

 

Then the author introduces four other ways to engage students in entertaining learning activities. The first one introduced was Mozzilla and Netscape Web browsers which are designed for the users with knowledge of XUL, a language similar to HTML/XML to modify the layout an d design of the browser interface for specific purposes. The author substituted throbbers in his browser with a small framework showing German words with English translation continuously while loading a Web site. In this way, the author significantly enlarged his vocabulary in German. Secondly, the author mentioned two modified tools named The Online Spanish Tutorial and about.com German which provided students various model sentences for memorization certain sentence structures and grammatical rules. The third potential activity proposed by the author is listening to music coupled with the synchronized lyrics which are embedded directly into songs. By listening to foreign music along with the lyrics help to improve one’s language learning ability while providing much fun and entertainment. A language solution known as the Pimsleur series is mentioned afterwards, which makes use of auditory materials on cassette or CD and let users to listen to those auditory files on their way to somewhere else.

 

All in all, the author in this article proposes that games that are originally designed for entertainment can actually be catered to education. A lot of games are mentioned in this article with thorough explanation and elaboration. However, the educational functions of most of these games are still need to be substantiated. Personally, I think this article provides a lot of innovative insights into making language learning more interesting and entertaining in that learners’ language learning might be best motivated in these kinds of games. I agree with the author that traditional teaching activities and burdensome homework to some extent discourage learners to actively participate in the language learning process. Still, no one can deny the distraction of games to learners, especially to less self-disciplined learners. Therefore, motivating learners to learn via games without being distracted becomes important for teachers and educators. And in consideration of my own experience and the current situation in China, I think the usage of the activities mentioned in this article remains maybe confined to only a few places.   

Session 6: L2 Literacy and the Design of the Self: A Case Study of a Teenager Writing on the Internet

It is an article written by WAN SHUN EVA LAM from the University of California, Berkeley. As its title suggests, this article presents a case study that applies ethnographic and discourse analytic methods to examine written texts of a Chinese immigrant teenager’s in order to figure out how texts are composed and used on representing and repositioning identity with the notion of textual identity. Above all, three research questions guide the research in this article and they are listed as follows:

1)        How do communities on the Internet act as contexts for L2 literacy use and development?

2)        What kinds of textual forms and cultural discourses are used and developed in these literacy practices?

3)        How are learners’ identities in the L2 constructed through networked computer media?

To begin with, this article introduces the theoretical concepts relevant to this study before presenting the findings of a case study of a Chinese immigrant teenager’s correspondence with a transnational group of peers on the Internet. The case study is aimed at studying how the teenager’s correspondence with a transnational group of peers on the Internet may contribute to his identity formation and the way he composes his texts online. The analysis of the teenager’s written text indicates that the student in question uses various discourses and a distancing of the narrative and biographical selves to construct relationships with Asian peers on the Internet. The research takes an ethnographic approach to theory construction which focuses on the study of the everyday life of people in question, as well as their social activities in specific contexts, and the meanings these activities hold for them (LAM). The author collected her data over a 6-month period beginning in fall 1997. Participant observation, in-depth interviews and textual documentation are all used to collect data on the student’s computer experiences and activities, his personal background, and his schooling experience with permissions from the students.

The focal student in the case study is a immigrant senior high school student who emigrated from Hong Kong to the United States with his parents and younger brother in 1992, at the age of 12, named Almon. The family at the time lived in a rented small apartment located on the outskirts of the Chinatown community. It had been five years since Almon immigrated to the USA at the time of being interviewed. But he was still stigmatized as a low-achieving student in his school and most of his classes at school were ESL, bilingual, or remedial courses. He made friends with Chinese speakers in and out of school. Later Almon became actively involved in learning about the Internet in the latter part of his senior year. He constructed a personal Web site through an international server, called GeoCities. With the help of the personal website, Almon positioned himself as a Japanese who immigrated to the USA and loved J-pop music and J-pop culture. He continuously updated his writing on the website and interacted with many internet pen pals from all over the world, especially peers from Hong Kong, Japan, Canada. So the author did a detailed study of the written texts generated in Almon’s personal website. After a long period of exposure to the various discourses online and dramaturgical interaction exchanging opinions or information with his online pen pals, Almon gradually became much competent in writing fluently in English in school programs and was planning to take a public speaking class to improve his oral delivery skills. Almon used to various discourses and the distancing of one’s narrative and iographical selves to construct his identity and relations with a trans-border network of peers on the Internet—an identity that is not available to him in the social environment and institutions of his adopted country. According to the case study, the author emphasizes the importance of constructing a model of communication that looks at how learners’ identities are created through the new networked computer media.

Actually my concern here about this article is that the potential “identity crisis” that would occur. Take Almon in the case study for example, I am glad that he improved his English by obtaining a personal website which encouraged him to use the language more often and got involved in the interaction with his peers from all over the world. But I am a little bit concerned about the laten problem related to identity. In my opinion, to some extent, the consistant role playing as another identity online might lead to one’s disposal of his or her origianl identity. Of course, it varies from person to person. Still, I think teachers should be cautious about the consequences of this kind of instruction or activities.

On “Language, Culture, and Identity in Online Fanfiction by Rebecca W. Black”

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In the article “Language, Culture, and Identity in Online Fanfiction” Rebecca W. Black from the University of California explains the educational function of popular and technology to foster the English language and writing skills of young English learners (ELLs) who are in a fan community based on the theories in second-language acquisition, literacy, culture and media studies. To further demonstrate her arguments, the author examines the notion of identity, popular and fan culture in her article with a case study of an adolescent ELL and her fans from all over the globe in the space they communicate, share, critique, and interact with each other.

 

According to Black, individual learners’ psycholinguistic processes during reading, writing and speaking in the target language has usually been the center of second-language acquisition (SLA) and to some extents this reflects the notion of identity. The dramatically developed new technologies enable learners to create various identities by which they can generate different discourses in different social contexts. Black in this article mainly focuses on Japanese animation or anime-based fanfiction texts to examine her ideas and further demonstrates her arguments with a case study. Fanfiction refers to the writing generated by fans with media narratives and pop cultural icons incorporated into the texts. In fanfiction, fans use creative imagination to rewrite the existed plots or the relationships of characters. With the help of new technology and internet services, they post their revised or novel works on any kind of media, either printed or digital, to collaboratively write, exchange, critique, and discuss one another’s fictions.

 

The case study is a research about the fanfiction written by Tanaka Nanako in Fanfiction.net, the biggest fanfiction archive online. Nanako is native Manderin Chinese speaker who moved from Shanghai, China to Canada with her family when she was 11 years old and did not speak any English. Drawing on Fanfiction.net to read others’ fanfiction online, Nanako gradually fostered her English language learning and writing skills. Black adopted a multilayered process based on discourse analytic techniques to analyze writings, interviews, online interactions, fan texts, and in reader reviews of these texts by examining Nanako. In the analysis for the article, the author chiefly selected thematic topics that were relevant to identity, language, and culture. Based on this rationale, the author chose representative texts that reflect the construction of identity actively achieved by Nanako in this space (and how this identity changed over time). Then the author took a closer discourse analytic examination of such texts and discuss how Nanako’s facility with different forms of literacy, popular culture, and the online fanfiction community provided her with diverse resources that helped her to construct and enact the identity of a successful fanfiction writer in English. After a thorough comparative analysis of Nanako’s early texts and recent texts, as well as other relevant materials, the author concludes that by taking a part in Fanfiction.net, it eabales Nanako to enhance confidence and motivation for writing in English and learning the language continuously, and feel a sense of pride that is associated with her linguistic background and ethnic identity as an Asian.

 

To conclude, the author expressed her concern about the fact that many institutions constrained learners’ identities to specific kinds due to the lack of consideration about the school, classroom, curricular, and societal contexts and suggest the positive effects of the notion of achieved identities which are constructed and negotiated actively by individual learners, which is supported by the case of Nanako. Moreover, the author also concludes that in the age of information and technology, it becomes necessary to consider how differently should position ELLS and adolescents in schools and how they choose to position themselves in out-of-school spaces, which may have serious affects towards their language learning and writing skills.

 

To be honest, before reading this article, I have never considered about the possibility of fostering language learning and writing skills by reading or writing fanfiction. Although I am also a big fan of fanfiction and usually read fanfiction texts for pleasure, I never regard these kinds of texts actually can be useful learning materials that help develop certain skills. The case study of Nanako in this article reminds me of my younger brother who is also a big fan of Japanese animation. Unlike Nanako, my brother only reads fanfiction and he seldom write one online. Still, his great passion of Japanese fanfiction becomes a powerful impetus for his learning Japanese. I should say that my brother has never been a good language learner and English is his biggest problem, but I am surprised by his fluency in Japanese which is way better than mine. Actually my second foreign language is exactly Japanese and I learn it with teacher’s instruction on campus. Now I realized that imperceptibly influenced by drawing on those fanfiction texts could be an effective way to improve language learning and writing skills. Another thing that this article reminds me is the importance of achieved identities for a language learner.  I used to position myself in out-of-school spaces (internet) as a seeker for fun, and this identity thus prevent me to learn via online resources. Luckily, my prejudice against the online space was eliminated upon graduation in high school. Now I became much positive about the notion of achieved identities and the possible positive effects of blogging.

Reflect upon Productive Pedagogies by Jakie Marsh

First of all, this article tries to explore the potential for incorporating Web 2.0 practices of blogging for learning when the usage of popular digital forms and practices are different between that at home and in school. Ways in which the introduction of aspects of children’s digital cultures into the classroom can promote ‘productive pedagogies’ in home and school contexts are also discussed in this article with a thorough analysis of a case study. According to Marsh, unlike the traditional understanding of ‘productive pedagogies’ in educational discourse, which refers to teaching methods that are designed to generate economical profits in the society, ‘productive’ in this article is combined with concepts of social justice (Lingard, 2005). The productive pedagogies was a model developed based on the analysis of the observational data obtained from about 1,000 primary and secondary classrooms in The Queensland School Reform Longitudinal Study (Lingard et al., 2001) for the purposes of mapping pedagogical practices across a number of elements that were derived from an examination of four dimensions: intellectual quality, connectedness, supportive classroom environment and engagement with difference. Productive pedagogies incorporated within these four dimensions can facilitate social justice in schools as a result of ensuring learner agency, reevance and challenge. The author of this article mainly focused on connectedness, which refers to the importance of connecting in-school and out-of-school digital literacy practices (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006) by providing a case study based on the blogging project of one primary school teacher in the north of England, Peter Winter who ask his students to maintain blogs so as to foster students’ ability to learn independantly with the aim to identify how pedagogical approaches that make space for digital play and creativity can be developed in ways which connect to the everyday literacy lives of pupils outside of the classroom. The ‘connectedness’ dimension identified by Lingard et al. (2001) was a significant aspect of a productive pedagogy involving four elements: knowledge integration, background knowledge, connectedness to the world and problem-based curriculum. The author further introduced the project in the remaining part of this article and then provided a conclusion claiming that pedagogical practices deployed in the case study not only simply promote particular types of learning but are crucially important to ensuring that schooling remains relevant and meaningful in a digital age.

To be frank, in consideration of children’s playfulness and the permissive digital technologies in their life, I admire “productive pedagogies” mentioned in this article as it creatively facilitates children to learn independently and by osmosis. Computer-based learning seems to be a commonplace nowadays and with its instant and interactive characteristics, it would be highly beneficial to children if they can master skills for learning with the help of computer. However, I still reserve my opinion about the adoption of “productive pedagogies” in traditional learning context due to the following three reasons. For one thing, like those parents the author mentioned in this article, there is a corresponding proliferation of moral panics in relation to children’s use of technologies. To explain it with platitude is that internet is a double-edged sword which can do well to children on one hand and seriously harm children on the other. There are various kinds of online information which can be both false and correct at the same time and most children are too young to discriminate information by themselves. And this bring me to my next point, taking the dramatically developing technologies into account, it seems inevitable for children to be embraced by diverse digital devices and internet, so if teachers were to apply pedagogies with the help of digital devices or the internet, they should seriously contemplate possible consequences of this kind of pedagogies and guide students all the way through the learning. So the problem-based curriculum should not only focus on technical and intellectual problems children might encounter but also problems that may occur having psychological effects. For another thing that make me doubt about “productive pedagogies” is whether it is feasible and practical. Within the context of China, it seems a bit impossible to incorporate internet or any other digital devices into daily teaching activities in refer to the educational resources and costs except for a few advanced coastal cities like Shanghai, Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou. Above all, the long-held belief that learning can only be achieved by traditional ways of teaching to a great extent hinder the implementation of  productive pedagogies in school, not to mention at homes since parents now are just raised to be “hostile” to any kind of screen-based activities. Hence, if teachers in China were to adopt “productive pedagogies” in their teaching, I don’t think costs would be the biggest problem if parents’ stereotypes against digital devices and the internet remain unchanged. Still, I am still positive about this kind of pedagogical practices. Lastly, here I enclosed with a picture demonstrating “productive pedagogies” for your information.

 

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References:

Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2006). New lieracies>: Everyday practices and classroom learning (2nd. ed.). Maidenhead, Berkshire: Open University Press.

Lingard, B. (2005). Socially just pedagogies in changing times. International Studies in the Sociology of Education, 15(2), 165-184.

Lingard, B., Ladwig, J., Mills, M., Chant, D., Warry, M., et al. (2001). The Queesnland School Reform Longitudinal Study (Vols. A and 2). Brisbane: Education Queensland.

About My Blog

     Maintaining a blog provides considerable great opportunities for online learning and professional development. For example, online interaction with my fellow classmates or other netizens enables me to get various comments on my posts, which might be beneficial to substantiating my ideas or even broadening my mind. Posting online frequently also allow me to improve my writing skills and communicating skills as generally my posts will mostly be a summary and reflection of an academic paper I have read. Therefore, writing posts in this blog, to some extent,  will help improve my summarizing and paraphrasing skills. 

     Since I am a postgraduate student majoring in English Studies, topics such as EAP (English for Academic Purposes), TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language), Approaches to Language Learning and Teaching and new literacy will be mainly covered in my blog over my course of the semester. Hopefully my posts will encourage not only me but my readers to reflect upon on certain issues and then communicate our ideas on the internet.

     To conclude, my blog will function as an online platform for sharing ideas both academically and emotioanlly. So please feel free to comment on my posts!

Online learning: My experience

     Before I was an undergraduate student at university, online learning had never been part of my life. Teachers in my senior high school seldom used online teaching despite the fact that our school was fully equipped with advanced electronic teaching devices and internet services. This might partly due to their strong belief that teenage students seemed to show a lack of self-control which would possibly lead to network addictions rather than self-disciplined learning. Therefore, teachers in my high school were determined to prevent us from online learning. However, the situation completely changed after I became a university student when in-class instruction and online learning were two major ways for learning.

     On my campus, teachers used an online blackboard system to inform students of the latest class information, updated teaching contents as well as recommended learning resources. There was also a discussion board for students and teachers to initiate any academic discussion or asking for help on leaning. Take the listening course as an example, due to the limited time of the class, it was impossible for us to do all the listening exercises inside the class; therefore, our teacher would upload unfinished listening materials to the blackboard system for us to download and practice after class. Then we would hand in our answers to each questions in the discussion board and got teacher’s instant feedback. We could also talk about problems we encountered in listening to the materials and had instant out-of-class instruction from the teacher or other students. In this way, I was able to effectively digest and practice what I had learnt through the course and get instant instruction from both teachers and my fellow classmates which could not be done in regular classroom. Apart from the online blackboard system, teachers also provided several online corpora for us to learn accordingly. For example, when I was taking my legal English class and had to write a case brief, I would firstly find out examples in different corpora of legal documents which were provided by our professor and then try to conclude with certain rules for legal writing. After four-year learning with the aid of in-class instructions and online learning, when I was in great difficulties with my study, online learning gradually became my first choice to get help.

      In terms of out-of-class context, online learning helps me tremendously on my language learning and academic writing. To be more specific, online learning has been highly beneficial to my Japanese learning. For one thing, I can download various learning materials from the internet and listen to different online Japanese learning classes for free; for another, I can ask for help with my problems in learning Japanese in various forums and get instant tutorial from professionals or practice my Japanese with native speakers. As for academic writing learning, apart from formal in-class instructions from my teachers, I can also post my essays online and get peer reviews or professional comments from hundreds of thousands of netizens which allows me to hear different voices and improve my writing finally. As a matter of fact, I also learn the constantly changing world through the internet via instant news coverage as well as diverse commentaries and opinions.  

     To sum up, the fascinating development of information technology is giving traditional teaching and learning environment radical changes by making online learning possible. Online learning allows learners to get beyond the significant challenges of cost and time which traditional classroom instruction cannot provide. I appreciate this new form of learning and it is indeed a helpful complement to the traditional learning methods. It has been enormously useful to my study both in class and out of class and it is much likely that it will be beneficial to my future study in various domains. However, online learning is a doubled-edged sword which is a useful learning facilitator at best and an inefficiently distracted monster at worst. Online learning can be dangerous for young learners who are lack of self-control and great discrimination since they are more possible to wrongly use online sources which may arouse problems such as plagiarism, network addiction.